Professional: Web - Research- Written - Resources
- Steele, C., Steel, D., & Waine, C. (2008). Diabetes and the Eye. Toronto: Butterworth, Heinemann, Elsevier.
- Description: This book is a basic easy to read primer which briefly describes the acute and chronic complications of diabetes (type 1 & 2) and presents DRR pathophysiology, clinical features, management, co-existing eye disease and prevention/control of DRR by changing systemic factors. It also includes interesting historical facts such as early attempts to measure systemic glucose via the tears.
- National Eye Institute. (2005). Diabetic eye disease education program: An educator’s guide. Bethesda, MD: Department of Health and Human Services, National Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health, Retrieved from https://nei.nih.gov/sites/default/files/nei-pdfs/DED_Flipchart_ENGLISH.pdf.
- Description: This is a government document available online and in book form. It “is a patient education tool for health professionals and community-based educators who work with people who have diabetes”. Like the presentation described below for consumers, it is arranged as a flip-chart that can be used in a DRR eye education program. It is an educational tool describing the types of diabetes, anatomy of the eye, consequences of DRR/association of cataracts/glaucoma, need for a yearly comprehensive eye exam and treatment for DRR. It is written in a simple to understand format (English and Spanish) This tool appears to be more versatile (than the similar flip chart in consumer references below) because it has more visual descriptive pictures and could conceivably require less educational competency level and be easier to present and understand. It is not available in audio format.
- The DCCT (1993) and EDIC (2005) (The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial and Follow-up Study).
- Link: http://www.niddk.nih.gov/about-niddk/research-areas/diabetes/dcct-edic-diabetes-control-complications-trial-follow-up-study/Documents/DCCT-EDIC_508.pdf
- Description: This study and follow-up demonstrated that keeping glucose levels at optimal or near normal levels could slow and / or reduce the risk of eye complications 73%. This article demonstrates the inner-connectedness of diabetes as a systemic disease that could be subject to multi-disciplinary interventions such as healthy eating and activity promotion (which in turn decrease the risk of DRR). Govt. pamphlet is available at: http://www.niddk.nih.gov/about-niddk/research-areas/diabetes/dcct-edic-diabetes-control-complications-trial-follow-up-study/Documents/DCCT-EDIC_508.pdf
- Tombran-Tink, J., Barnstable, C. J., & Gardner, T. W. (Eds.). (2012). Visual dysfunction in diabetes, the science of patient impairment and health care: Humana Press.
- Description: DRR and Person Centered Care. This edited book explores the effect of diabetes on the vision of a person living with the disease, the medical manifestations and treatment of DRR as well as the pathophysiology of how the disease develops. This book offers a plus by exploring importance of person centered care and the effects of DRR on the individual with the disease. It personalizes vision impairment and dysfunction on a human as well as a clinical level.
- Taylor, R., & Batey, D. (2012). Handbook of retinal screening in diabetes: Diagnosis & management (2 ed.): Wiley-Blackwell.
- Description: This book is utilized in the UK and Europe for training DRR screeners. Although this concept is very new to the US, it is an excellent reference in any training program that might involve community health workers or diabetes educators or other health personnel that might be used in community interventions.
- Wallace, B. C. (Ed.). (2008). Toward equity in health: A new global approach to health disparities: Springer Publishing Company.
- Description: This book offers case studies that can be used as potential templates for developing DRR disease related interventions in the US. Of particular interest are cultural empowerment (chapter 3), chronic vs acute disease and new paradigms for individual and population health (chapter 4), health disparities (chapter 7), developing multi-interventional programs with the community and major stakeholders (chapter 14), and training community health workers and peer educators (section 6).
- Lindenmeyer A, Sturt J. A., Hipwell A, et al. Influence of primary care practices on patients’ uptake of diabetic retinopathy screening: a qualitative case study. British Journal of General Practice. 2014, 64(625):e484-e492.
- Description: This study conducted in the UK identified five modifiable factors that influence DRR screening that could be applicable in developing a program in the US. The five listed factors are; 1. practice communication with screening services, 2. contacting patients pre- and post-screening, 3. integration of retinopathy screening with other diabetes care, 4. focusing on the newly diagnosed, and 5. a perception among practice staff that there was a hard core of patients who would not attend screening unless they experienced symptoms.
- a. von-Bischhoffshausen, F. B., Castro, F. M., & Gomez-Bastar, P. (2011). Planning diabetic retinopathy services: Lessons from Latin America. Community Eye Health, 24(75), 14-16 (see below).
- b. Byrne, M. M., Parker, D. F., Tannenbaum, S. L., Ocasio, M. A., Lam, B. L., Zimmer-Galler, I., & Lee, D. J. (2014). Cost of a Community-Based Diabetic Retinopathy Screening Program. Diabetes Care, 37(11), e236-e237. doi: 10.2337/dc14-0834 (see below).
- c. Cuadros, J. (2015). Telemedicine-based diabetic retinopathy screening programs: An evaluation of utility and cost-effectiveness. Smart Homecare Technology and TeleHealth, 2015(3), 119-127.
- Description: Two of these journal articles discuss setting up a DRR screening program in Mexico (8a) and the costs involved in a small DRR screening effort in a US pilot study (9b). The last article (10c) discusses the practicality and cost effectiveness of using digital retinal screening in a community approach for rural or remote locations where current service is unavailable in the United States. All three articles address the practical nature of setting up a screening, the potential for success and comparing costs to traditional DRR care.
- Dickinson, J. K., Guzman, S. J., Maryniuk, M. D., O’Brian, C. A., Kadohiro, J. K., Jackson, R. A., . . . Funnell, M. M. (2017). The Use of Language in Diabetes Care and Education. Diabetes Care, Advance online publication.
- Description: Behavior change and cultural sensitivity also apply to how we address the disease and the person with the disease. Eye care has lagged behind in making this distinction. One commonly hears the term diabetic patient, or diabetic retinopathy used in eye care clinically and in journal articles. To put this in perspective, a person with macular degeneration is not referred to as a macular degenerate, so a person with DRR should not be referred to as a “diabetic” or “suffering with diabetic retinopathy”. This article discusses the use of language when partnering and conducting interventions and clinical care with persons with diabetes.
- American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists/American College of Endocrinology
Consumer: Web - Research- Written - Resources
Chous, A. P. (2003). Diabetic eye disease: Lessons from a diabetic eye doctor. Auburn, WA: Fairwood Press.
- Description: This book was written by Paul Chous (diagnosed with type 1 diabetes) who was inspired to become an optometrist by his brother (who was also an optometrist). Paul attributes a timely screening and diagnosing DRR by his brother as saving his vision. The book describes and presents the important complications diabetes has on the eyes. It is written in an engaging style primarily for consumers who want to be informed about the best evidence based research. It is also a good practical guide. The book mentions little known facts on how diabetes influences tearing in the eyes, sensitivity of the cornea and can be associated with cataracts.
- Description: This is a government document available online and in book form arranged as a flip-chart that can be used in a DRR eye education program. It is an educational tool describing the types of diabetes, anatomy of the eye, consequences of DRR/association of cataracts/glaucoma, the need for a yearly comprehensive eye exam and treatment for DRR. It is written in a simple to understand format (English and Spanish) It also assumes an average education level of literacy and understanding. It is not available in audio format.
- Description: This government document is available online and in book form. Positive social support (friends and family) can influence optimal self-management behaviors on persons diagnosed with diabetes and lessen the onset and degree of DRR. This tool provides information about diabetic retinopathy and answers questions about the cause, prevention and symptoms of this progressive eye disease. It is written in a simple to understand format (English and Spanish) It also assumes an average education level of literacy and understanding. It is not available in audio format.
- Link: http://retinarisk.com/about/
- Interest: Excellent professional or consumer resource.
- Description: This web site is an informational as well as a retinopathy estimator based on evidence based research. By calculating and inserting the blood glucose level (A1c), blood pressure and duration (in years) of diabetes a percentage estimate of DRR risk is given. This is an excellent website for presenting and illustrating the importance of intra-professional collaboration and reducing factors responsible for developing DRR.
- Description: This is a book written by retinal specialists for consumers. Using adjustable fonts and it contains definitions and explanations for the terms commonly used when describing eye and vision complications. The book discusses lifestyle changes and how these effect hyperglycemia and vision. It gives practical advice such as providing a list of questions to ask eye care practitioners and coping with vision loss from DRR.